In our previous posts on ser and estar we learned about the permanent vs. temporary difference of these two verbs, and also about some other uses that don’t necessarily follow this rule.We have already seen in past posts some of the uses of ser and estar, but what happens with other uses of ser and estar? For example, when they’re used as auxiliary verbs? Today we’ll learn how to use them for more advanced constructions in Spanish such as the passive voice, or the combination estar + past participle. Are you ready? Let’s dive in!
Table of Contents
We have already seen in past posts some of the uses of ser and estar, but what happens with other uses of ser and estar? For example, when they’re used as auxiliary verbs? Today we’ll learn how to use them for more advanced constructions in Spanish such as the passive voice, or the combination estar + past participle. Are you ready? Let’s dive in!
Using the verb ‘ser’ to form the passive voice in Spanish
Although the passive voice is mostly used in specific contexts, such as formal written language (for example, research reports, news stories, or academic papers), whenever we want to use this construction, we need to use a form of the verb ser, and not estar.
The passive voice is formed with the auxiliary verb ser (in any tense) plus the past participle of the main verb in the active sentence. Review the meaning of auxiliary verbs in “Unpacking the grammar!” Let’s look at some examples:
Do you want to learn the different forms the verb ser can take in the passive voice construction? We have created this list for you. Check it out!
Impersonal expressions and generalizations
We can make impersonal expressions and generalizations with both ser and estar. Impersonal expressions are those where the subject is indeterminate, and we use them to introduce opinions or statements. Let’s read a couple of examples:
Es lamentable tener que cancelar el concierto. It’s unfortunate to have to cancel the concert.
Está prohibido fumar en este lugar. It’s forbidden to smoke in this place.
In case you’re wondering about some of the impersonal expressions you can make with the verb ser and estar we’ve prepared this list for you.
Using the verb ‘estar’ + past participle
To indicate the outcome of an action
We can also use the verb estar along with a past participle (for example: abierto [open], comido [eaten], bebido [drunk]) to refer to the result of an action or event. Since we’re using the past participles as adjectives in this particular context, remember we need to make them agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. Let’s see some examples below:
La restricción terminó y, cuando salimos, todos los restaurantes estaban abiertos.
The restriction ended and, when we went out, all the restaurants were open.
Nuestra presentación fue todo un éxito. Nosotras estábamos muy sorprendidas.
Our presentation was a success. We were very surprised.
We can use the verb ser with a past participle, but this is exclusive to the passive voice. In the case of estar, we’re not describing the state of a person or object, we’re just describing an action. Let’s compare both possibilities:
In the sentence on the left, we’re using ser to make the passive voice. We’re describing an action and putting emphasis on it (es preparada [is prepared]). The agent (the person or thing that performs the action) who prepared the food, is not that important and that’s why we don’t emphasize that.
As you can see, in any case it’s very important to make the participles agree with the nouns they modify. The participles behave just like adjectives, if you want to refresh your memory about this, we’ve got you covered with “Unpacking the grammar” at the end of this post!
To mention the condition of an object
It is also possible to use the verb estar and a past participle to describe the condition of an animal or an object. This use of the verb estar is aligned with what we already know about temporary events. Let’s see a couple of examples:
La ventana está abierta. The window is open.
El perro está dormido. The dog is asleep.
Using the verb ‘estar’ + gerund to form the present progressive
Finally, the verb estar is used as the auxiliary verb to form the present progressive. This is a tense we use when we want to talk about actions in progress at a time now or around the present. The equivalent in English is when we use the verb to be + a verb ending in -ing (I’m running), but it’s not always used the same way. Stay tuned for the post on the ins and outs of the present progressive.
Remember that with this construction you need to add the endings -ando or -iendo to the verb, for example: estudiando [studying] or comiendo [eating]. If you want to impress your friends, you can call this a “gerund”! Let’s take a look at a few examples:
Tú estás leyendo un artículo en español. You are reading an article in Spanish.
Mi madre está trabajando en el computador. My mother is working on the computer.
Let’s see what we have just learned about the uses of ser and estar as auxiliary verbs:
We can use the verb ser with a past participle to make the passive voice in Spanish. The passive voice is a construction that is highly used in the written formal language, and that places more emphasis on the action itself.
We can make impersonal expressions and generalizations with the verbs ser and estar. Make sure you check out the list we created for you.
We can use the verb estar with a past participle to indicate the outcome of an action, or to mention the temporary condition of an object.
We can use the verb estar with a gerund to form the present progressive and talk about ongoing actions in the present.
This post marks the end of our series on the uses of ser and estar. We hope you have a better understanding of these tricky Spanish verbs. Make sure you check out this article with all the main uses of verbs ser and estar, and examples for each case.
Before you leave, we’d like to invite you to work on this exercise to practice the uses of ser and estar covered in this post. Happy learning!
Unpacking the grammar
El niño pequeño The small child
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